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In 1983 Howard Gardner proposed the ‘Theory of Multiple Intelligences’, which proposed the idea that intelligence is diverse and comprises eight key types.


He theorised that intelligence should not be thought of in a strict academic sense. People can be stronger in some of these intelligences than others and they can excel in many simultaneously.


The Eight Multiple Intellgences
The eight key intelligences outlined by Howard Gardner are:

● Visual-Spatial: describes strengths in mental visualisation which helps with recognising patterns and using maps.

● Linguistic-Verbal: adept in using words for effect and memorising information.

● Logical-Mathematical: good at analysing problems, organising and mathematics.

● Bodily-Kinesthetic: able to coordinate their own body to a high degree. Good hand- eye coordination is also said to be a common trait.

● Musical: well able to think deeply about rhythms, patterns and sounds.

● Interpersonal: this describes people who are competent communicators, and people who are good at reading others’ emotions.

● Intrapersonal: high ability to recognise own emotions and are said to enjoy self-reflection.

● Naturalistic: an addition to the original seven ‘multiple intelligences’, people with this ability are said to be more in tune with nature and are purported to be interested in learning about other species.


The idea of multiple intelligences has drawn much criticism: it has been argued that the intelligences are too broad and simply represent talents or personality traits.

Moreover there is little evidenece to suggest that these 'intellegences' could be grounded in nature - it is  more likely that strong skills in each of these areas are a result of specfic personal interests and practice over time.

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